Japanese Housing System from the Perspective of "De-Commodification"
Keywords: 住宅保障システム, 住宅政策, 福祉レジーム,
近年の政府の住宅政策の「転換」や深刻化する雇用・住宅問題のなかで, 日本の住宅保障システムは, あらためてその意義と機能を問われている. 本稿は, 戦後日本の住宅保障システムを「脱商品化」の弱さという視点から跡づけることを通じて, 日本の住宅保障システムの現状と課題をより広い文脈のなかで理解し, 長期的な視野に立った展望を得ることを目的とする.
Recently two events occurred that urge the reconsideration of the characteristics and function of the housing system in postwar Japan; these are the "drastic" reform of the housing policy since the 2000s and the serious housing problem of irregular workers caused by the recent economic crisis. This paper analyzes some facets of the Japanese housing system, especially from the perspective of the "commodification / de-commodification" of housing which is the core concept of the welfare regime theories. The Japanese housing system in postwar Japan has been characterized by its low degree of the "de-commodification" of housing; minimum volume of social housing, lack of general housing benefit, one-sided favor of homeownership over tenancy, and the strong dependence on the corporate housing benefit. The latter means the risk where job loss is directly linked to the loss of housing. The serious housing problem of irregular workers now occurring is understood as the actualization of this risk. During the past ten years the government has changed the housing policy in favor of the more market-oriented housing system. On the one hand, the construction of social housing has been increasingly reduced; while on the other, the introduction of the general housing benefit scheme is being passed up this time again. From the perspective of the "commodification / de-commodification" of housing, so-called "drastic" reform of the governmental housing policy now in progress does not mean the drastic change of the Japanese housing system, but rather the purification of the "commodification" of housing. It is very doubtful that the increasingly "commodificated" housing system will meet the broad housing needs of the people.
社會科學研究 第60巻 第5･6合併号（2009-03-23発行）
（更新日： 2012年 11月 2日）